Poro Art Offerings: Analysis of Some Objects
• Galerie Walu (Geneva) 12 November 2014
• Raymond Kerr (NYC) 8 November – 8 December 2014
• Bonham’s NYC) 12 November 2014
GALERIE WALU-KOLLER AUCTIONS (Geneva), AFRICAN & OCEANIC ART, 12 NOVEMBER 2014
|Lot 104 is a simple, three-horned Bamana Ntomo mask, used in lower-level Boy’s initiations, once wore by a Bamana Zo (Somaw, Furatigi, Kòmòtigiw).Lot 105 is an unusually ornate seven-horned Bamana Ntomo or Kòmò mask. The system of increasing horn-numbers and their relationship to grade and status is not known. The mask is covered in florets of cowrie shells interconnected with bright red and black Abrus precatorius seeds. Although these seeds are among the most poisonous substances known, ranking right up there with ricin, and although they are likely an ingredient in some Poro poisons, in this case they are simply used as beads for ornamentation. Cowries usually symbolize the wealth and high status of a Poro mask, but this is overkill. The name, status, and function of this mask is not known.
LOT 113 is a male Gɛ mask from the Dan. It may be Liberian (Gio) or Ivorian (Yacouba) Dan in origin. Although it has round eyes, this only identifies its gender as a male Bush Spirit, and does not make it a “fire-runner” mask. The name “Zakpai” from Fischer and Himmelheber is wrong, and should no longer be used.
Not recognizing that Poro existed among the Dan, and in their attempt to organize Dan masks into a dozen rigid “types”, a Western effort not based on Dan reality, Fisher and Himmelheber labeled masks with large round eyes “fire masks” named “Zakpei”, mentioning that this name is untranslatable (1984:44-45). The word Zakpei is very wrong and its usage should no longer be perpetuated, just as the resultant myth that all round-eyed masks are either fire masks or running masks should be herein dispelled.
It is likely that these authors had a Mandingo informant, specifically one of the “Ojine Mandingo”. In Ojine Mandingo the word Diakope means “Diako person” (the Dia- particle becomes a hard “Jia” or “Zhia” sound in Mande and has a “Z” sound in Mandingo, and the particle -pe means man). Diako (Ziako) and Diakope (Zakpei) are very derogatory terms in Ojine, relating to stupidity, bush people, uncivilized people, and so on, and is the Ojine term for the Dan. The word Zakpei is bad enough, but should certainly never be attached to a mask form.it is that it is time to dispel the idea that all round-eyed Dan masks are automatically “fire masks” or “running masks”.
The description asserts that the round eyes made this mask something it wasn’t (it was not a racing or fire mask), and the eyes weren’t carved in a round shape to enable the masker to see better. In actuality, round eyes on Poro masks signify maleness and are a stylistic component of a particular Bush Spirit mask. Carey (2013) examined seventeen round-eyed Dan masks, not one of which is was running mask or a fire mask. For examples of running masks see Girard 1967: plate VIIIa and Holas 1966.
Girard, Jean. 1967. Dynamique de la Société Ouobé. Dakar: IFAN.
Holas, B. 1966. Arts de la Cote d’Ivoire. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
This mask has unfortunately been stripped of all its important attachments, costume, coif, and even the metal rings that were once around the eyes. (it was likely hammered aluminum). Therefore at this stage in its life, this “naked” mask is just a generic template of a male Dan mask, with no way of determining its real name, village where used, any public and/or secret functions, its identity, or status in the Dan Poro masking hierarchy.
Lot 115 is another round-eyed (male) Dan mask, probably from the Ivorian Yacouba, but Dan/Kono is also possible. It fortunately still retains its intricate fiber coif and beard, which appears original. There are remnants of a resinous material around the eyeholes, but no nail holes are apparent, so there was likely never metal encircling the eyes. There is no way of knowing from the image and the information given if this was a simple secular personal or village entertainment mask, or if it belonged to the Poro and had a particular secret society name and function. It is real, old, and well-used.
RAYMOND C. KERR COLLECTION, (NYC): TRADITIONAL ART OF THE IVORY COAST/ARTS TRADITIONNELS DE LA CÔTE D’IVOIRE, 8 NOVEMBER — 8 DECEMBER 2014
As expected, Raymond Kerr has assembled a high-quality group of Ivorian objects for sale in New York.
There is an old, well-used, brown wood, Poro Society male Bush Spirit mask with round eyes, probably from the Yacouba Dan or adjacent Wobé. Remnants of a yellowish-tan mask across the eyes suggest that it once had either a red cloth mask (signifying its Poro ownership) or a mask of applied kaolin. The mask still retains its fiber beard.
An old and rare double mask from the Guro is surmounted by a standing female figure. It is in excellent condition, with a patina consistent with a century-old piece.
There is a Dan/Guéré or Wobé mask with midline forehead scar, lozenge-shaped eyes, broad nose, animal teeth in the typical Kran low-set mouth, and a symmetrical application of brass-colored tacks adorning the forehead, brow and cheeks. It probably belonged to an Elder of the Kwi society.
Another brass tack adorned face mask with tubular eyes, animal tooth-filled low-set Bété-style mouth may indeed be Bété, but with the downward-curving tusks it feels like it’s from the neighboring Nyabwa.
Lot 294 is a zoomorphic Senufo helmet mask ex. Alfie Schienberg. The two rounded horns curve inwards, and underneath each horn is a rounded ear, suggesting an antelope. A seated female figure sits atop an arch-like element suggestive of a heddle pulley. Only remnants of its old layer of applied materials remains. Three circumferential rings of holes were for the attachment of a costume, perhaps raffia.