Secrecy: Journal of the Poro Studies Association


Style sheet


Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed.

Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed.

General Notes

  • Pagination begins anew with each issue.
  • Keywords are required with submission (should be included during submission process) but are not typeset in the final article.
  • Acknowledgements should appear as an unnumbered note at the beginning of the endnotes section.


  • Double-space all text, notes, and citations.
  • One-inch margins.
  • Align left all.
  • Hit “tab” key (not “space” bar) for indents.

Article Types

Scholarly Article elements:

Authors: Do not include any personal information in the Word document until after the blind peer-review has been completed and the article has been accepted for publication.

  • Article title (headline-style capitalization)
  • Author name(s)
  • Author affiliation(s)
  • Running heads: Author name(s) (verso), article title (recto)
  • English and French abstracts are required for scholarly articles. Translated from/to French/English by publisher.
  • Section heads say “Article”
  • Brief author bio will appear at the end of the piece.

Book Review elements:

  • Publication information for reviewed book should appear as follows at the beginning of review:

Title of Reviewed Book

Author of Reviewed Book [or “Edited by…”]

City of Publication, ST: Publisher, year of publication; pp. xxx, $0.00 cloth; $0.00 paper; $0.00 ebook.

  • When referencing parts of the reviewed book, the page number should appear in parentheses after the reference: “The author said so” (4).
  • The name and affiliation of the review author should appear at the end of the review.
  • Section heads say “Book Review.”
  • Running heads say “Book Review” recto and verso.


  • Initial images can be submitted as low-resolution jpeg or PDF digital files, but final images must be full-size, hi-res images of at least 300 dpi saved as Tiff or JPEG. Adobe RGB is preferable, as we can convert to CMYK if needed for print. Print images and photographs are acceptable, but will not be returned.
  • Images, graphics, and maps should be labeled chronologically as Figures 1, 2, 3, etc., and placed in the text along with an in-text tag such as <Figure 1 here> to show where the figure should be located in the final typeset article. If accepted for publication, author will be required to provide each figure as a separate, high-resolution file early in the production process.
  • Captions should be provided for all figures. “Figure 1.” spelled out (not “Fig. 1”). Relevant copyright information and/or credit given to the author of the image should be included in the ca
  • When referring to a figure within the text, use (see Figure 1).
  • Tables should be labeled chronologically as Table 1, 2, 3, etc., and placed in the text where they will appear in the finished paper.
  • When referring to a table within the text use (see Table 1).


(Ongoing list)

Côte d’Ivoire (not Ivory Coast)


Poro, Belli-Paaro, Gbangbane, and the names of other societies should be capitalized, as should the titles of specific ranks and places such as Da Zo, Laka, Ge Baw.




Punctuation, Capitalization, and Word Treatments

  • Authors should use Charis SIL font, if phonetic text if phonetic symbols are used.
  • Serial commas: The flag is red, white, and blue.
  • Use “and” instead of an ampersand (&).
  • Use “percent” instead of %: 3 percent.
  • Quotation marks, American style: Double quotes outside, single quotes inside.
  • Periods and commas inside quotation marks, colons and semicolons outside.
  • Epigraphs and block quotes do not use quotation marks.
  • Always add ‘s to possessives, even if ending in s: Janis’s.
  • Ellipses: 3 periods with spaces before, between and after to indicate omission of text. 4 dots if beginning a new sentence after omission.
  • D., M.A., B.A.
  • Put a space between two or three initials of a person’s name (L. M. Montgomery, W. E. B. Du Bois), unless the person is commonly known by their initials (JFK, FDR).
  • No comma between name and Jr. or II: John Smith Jr.
  • Titles/Names/Ethnic Groups: Capitalize civil, military, religious, and professional/official titles when they immediately precede a personal name (ex: Queen Elizabeth).
  • Lowercase titles when they follow the name or are used in place of the name (the queen, the sheikh).
  • United States when used as a noun, U.S. when used as an adjective.
  • Small caps for a.m., m., b.c., c.e.
  • Website URLs and email addresses set in roman.
  • Capitalized words [ongoing list]: Islamization, Web, Website, Internet…
  • Not capitalized [ongoing list]: black (skin color), white (skin color)…


Compound Words, Prefixes and Suffixes

  • General rule: Use hyphens to avoid ambiguity and difficult reading. Where a misreading is unlikely, the compound should be closed.
  • Refer to Chicago Manual of Style, 16th, 7.85, for extensive guide.
  • If in doubt, refer to
  • Some exceptions: -class, self-

Acronyms and Abbreviations

  • Set in all caps with no periods: YMCA, HMO.
  • Spell out first time used, followed by the acronym or abbreviation in parentheses.

Foreign Words

  • Use italics for the first mention of native terms in the text, thereafter not.
  • American spellings, not British: kilometer not kilometre
  • Isolated foreign words should be italicized. If a translation is necessary, it should follow, set in roman, in parenthesis.
  • Foreign words should be set in roman in they are proper nouns.
  • Foreign words should be set in roman if they are found in an English dictionary.

Examples: jihad, hijab, griot…

Numbers and Dates

  • Spell out numbers one through ten, use numerals if 11 and above. Exception: use numerals in a series of mixed numbers (14 cities, 2 cars, 6 geese).
  • Use numerals when a number precedes a unit of measure (3 mm) and percentages (3 percent).
  • Use numerals for dates, times, page numbers.
  • Very large numbers can be expressed in numerals followed by unit: 2.3 million.
  • Always spell out a number at the beginning of a sentence.
  • Plurals should use only “s”: temperatures in the 70s, 1960s.
  • Inclusive ranges for numbers (date and page ranges) should use en-dash, not hyphen: 29–31.
  • Dates should be listed Month Day, Year: May 31, 1958.


  • Articles should be Chicago endnote style; use endnotes with superscript numbers in-text.
  • The first endnote carries the whole bibliographic entry. Subsequent references can be short-form or use Ibid.
  • Inclusion of DOIs encouraged for online materials.
  • Include access dates for online citations if available.
  • Publication titles [Daily Beast] are italicized, but website are not [].


Emery Blackfoot, Chance Encounters (Boston: Serendipity Press, 1987), 151–60.

Shortened: Blackfoot, Chance Encounters, 160.

Kurt Johnson and Steve Coates, Nabokov’s Blues: The Scientific Odyssey of a Literary Genius (Cambridge, MA: Zoland Books, 1999).

Shortened: Johnson and Coates, Nabokov’s Blues, 220.

John Smith, Title of Book, ed. Jane Doe (New York: Publishers Press, 2002), 152.

Shortened: Smith, Title of Book, 153.

Ernest Kaiser, “The Literature of Harlem,” in Harlem: A Community in Transition, ed. J. H. Clarke (New York: Citadel Press, 1964), 298–302.

Shortened: Kaiser, “The Literature of Harlem,” 298–302.


Journal Article

Marc Shell, “Language Wars,” New Centennial Review 1, no. 2 (2001): 1–17.

Frank P. Whitney, “The Six-Year High School in Cleveland,” School Review 37, no. 4 (1929): 268,

María de la Luz Inclán, “From the ¡Ya Basta! to the Caracoles: Zapatista Mobilization under Transitional Conditions,” American Journal of Sociology 113, no. 5 (2008): 1318, doi:10.1086/525508.

Author, Margaret M. “Article Title.” Journal Name 98 (forthcoming).

Magazines & Newspapers

John Smith, “Computers Hit the Classroom,” U.S. News and World Report, March 7, 1994, 75.

Wendy Cole and Janice Castro, “Scientology’s Largesse in Russia,” Time, April 13, 1992, accessed June 6, 2015,,9171,975290,00.html.


Alexander Hawryluk, “Friends of FIGHT: A Study of a Militant Civil Rights Organization” (Ph.D. diss., Cornell University, 1967), 49.

Presented Papers

Stacy D’Erasmo, “The Craft and Career of Writing” (lecture, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, April 26, 2000).


Quattro, letter to author, April 15, 1978.

Jane Smith, interviewed by author, August 31, 2006, video recording.